E2: Managing risk

Those at risk of stroke and those who have had a stroke are assessed for and given information about risk factors and lifestyle management issues so that action can be taken to reduce overall vascular risk.

Key: e = element | k = knowledge | s = skill

Knowledge and understanding of…

the risk factors for stroke and transient ischaemic attack
stroke sub-types and their aetiologies
the risk of further stroke depending on type and aetiology
who provides interventions for primary and secondary prevention of stroke
pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for primary and secondary prevention of stroke, and side effects of treatment

Skills and ability to...

take and interpret a thorough medical history, including information from carers, family, and other agencies where possible, and carry out decision-specific mental capacity assessments as appropriate
identify risk factors and apply vascular risk assessment tools for transient ischaemic attack and screening tests for stroke
determine, plan, and initiate the appropriate screening, assessments and investigations, and interventions and treatments for risk reduction
recognise stroke-related communication difficulties and adapt methods of communication to discuss with the patient, carer, and family: current event; risk of future vascular event; need for and timeframes of assessments and investigations; rationale for interventions and treatments, their timeframes, and possible side effects; and provide timely information, advice and support
identify the full range of local and national resources and services available for those affected by stroke, including: health, social, voluntary, and independent; assess their relevance and suitability for the patient, carer, and family; liaise with services, working across agencies and sharing information where appropriate; communicate referral arrangements, availability and waiting times
monitor progress and agree or change a maintenance or management plan in conjunction with those at risk of stroke or secondary stroke
assess medication adherence and facilitate improved engagement